These are dynamic times for network operators. They have further challenges to meet besides just the growing demand for bandwidth.What is the correct architecture for fiber optic networks? Has this question been answered yet? Should the topology be P2P or P2MP? Will these networks be expanded as underground or above-ground systems? Each decision has to be carefully thought through. The main issue is to meet the demands of the future. The equipment being installed today should work trouble-free for decades to come.